Frankreichs mythenumrankter König Ludwig XIV. führte ein außergewöhnlich luxuriöses Leben. Eine Ausstellung zu seinem Todestag. Historie & Festung / Netzwerk Festungsstädte / Ludwig XIV. Ludwig XIV. König von Frankreich - Gründer und Namensgeber der Stadt Saarlouis. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer.
14. Mai 1643 - Die Ära von Sonnenkönig Ludwig XIV. beginntDer "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Frankreichs mythenumrankter König Ludwig XIV. führte ein außergewöhnlich luxuriöses Leben. Eine Ausstellung zu seinem Todestag. Auch wenn die Öffentlichkeit glaubt, Henriette Anna sei Ludwigs Geliebte. Gemälde: Ludwig der XIV. als Kind mit seiner Mutter. Ludwigs Mutter hat von Beginn an.
Louis Der 14 Louis XIV ascended to the throne at the age of four. VideoLudwig XIV. Biografie [PART 1/3] Louis XIV [lu'ii neljateistkümnes] või Päikesekuningas (prantsuse keeles le Roi Soleil) 5. september – 1. september ) oli Prantsusmaa ja Navarra kuningas –, Austria Anna ja Prantsusmaa kuninga Louis XIII poeg.. Tal oli ka noorem vend Philippe d'Orléans ( september – 9. juuni ), kes sai hiljem tuntuks kui Monsieur, mis oli traditsiooniliselt suverääni Eelnev: Louis XIII. The story of Louis XIV’s death is worthy of a Shakespearean tragedy. His health started to decline on 10 August upon his return from a hunting trip in Marly, when he felt sharp pains in his arnaudgranata.com, his doctor, diagnosed sciatica. But the pain was always in the same place, and shortly afterwards black marks appeared, indicating senile gangrene. The fall () of La Rochelle to Richelieu's army and the Peace of Alais () marked the end of Huguenot political privileges. After , Louis XIV was persuaded by his Roman Catholic advisers to embark on a policy of persecuting the Protestants.
As tensions mounted, Louis decided to acknowledge James Stuart , the son of James II, as king of England on the latter's death, infuriating William III.
These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. French diplomacy secured Bavaria, Portugal, and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.
Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy. Once finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession lasted almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and France.
The war began with French successes, but the talents of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.
The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim. Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria , had to flee to the Spanish Netherlands.
The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy. Later, the Battle of Ramillies delivered the Low Countries to the Allies, and the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied forces.
Marlborough and Eugene met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to invade France. Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France.
Between and , over two million people died in two famines, made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages. By the winter of —09, he was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost.
He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over 60 years.
But he could promise that Philip V would accept these terms, so the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his grandson to force these terms on him.
If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms.
The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V.
The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.
The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French.
French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria. In , the Emperor Leopold I died.
His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.
If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 's in the 16th century. To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.
As a result of the fresh British perspective on the European balance of power, Anglo-French talks began, culminating in the Treaty of Utrecht between Louis, Philip V of Spain , Anne, Queen of Great Britain , and the Dutch Republic.
In , after losing Landau and Freiburg , the Holy Roman Emperor also made peace with France in the Treaties of Rastatt and Baden.
In the general settlement, Philip V retained Spain and its colonies, while Austria received the Spanish Netherlands and divided Spanish Italy with Savoy.
Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, son of James II and pretender to the throne of Great Britain, and ceded Newfoundland , Rupert's Land , and Acadia in the Americas to Anne.
Britain gained the most from the treaty, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.
Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.
Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion.
Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa. He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial.
Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.
He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.
Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Catholic Church in France. He made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly.
Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles. Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies.
Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning artists such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.
Over the course of four building campaigns, Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular Palace of Versailles.
With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of his reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.
At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.
The memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.
While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.
The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.
Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.
Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of the elegant Louvre Colonnade designed by three Frenchmen: Louis Le Vau , Charles Le Brun , and Claude Perrault.
With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.
With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.
The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.
Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.
This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.
The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.
As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.
There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.
Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.
Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle.
However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain.
However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson.
That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants.
The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later.
In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.
In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule.
He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected permanent triumphal arches in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.
Louis' reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. Sixteenth-century rulers had often issued medals in small numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns.
Louis, however, struck more than to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France.
He also used tapestries as a medium of exalting the monarchy. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events.
They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.
Louis loved ballet and frequently danced in court ballets during the early half of his reign. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets.
This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer. His choices were strategic and varied. He sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun.
It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing.
The sheer number of performances he gave as well as the diversity of roles he played may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and interest in the art form.
Ballet dancing was actually used by Louis as a political tool to hold power over his state. He integrated ballet deeply in court social functions and fixated his nobles' attention on upholding standards in ballet dancing, effectively distracting them from political activities.
Pierre Beauchamp , his private dance instructor, was ordered by Louis to come up with a notation system to record ballet performances, which he did with great success.
His work was adopted and published by Feuillet in This major development in ballet played an important role in promoting French culture and ballet throughout Europe during Louis' time.
Louis greatly emphasized etiquettes in ballet dancing, evidently seen in "La belle danse" the French noble style.
More challenging skills were required to perform this dance with movements very much resembling court behaviors, as a way to remind the nobles of the king's absolute power and their own status.
All the details and rules were compressed in five positions of the bodies codified by Beauchamp. Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government.
They often focused on the miseries arising from poor government, but also carried the hope for a better future when Louis escaped the malignant influence of his ministers and mistresses, and took the government into his own hands.
On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy. These varying interpretations of Louis abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the idea of monarchy.
Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good.
He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes , as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in , dental abscesses in , along with recurring boils , fainting spells, gout , dizziness , hot flushes, and headaches.
On 18 November , Louis underwent a painful operation for an anal fistula that was performed by the surgeon Charles Felix de Tassy, who prepared a specially shaped curved scalpel for the occasion.
The wound took more than two months to heal. Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September , four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne.
Enduring much pain in his last days, he finally "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out", while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina O Lord, make haste to help me.
It remained there undisturbed for about 80 years, until revolutionaries exhumed and destroyed all of the remains found in the Basilica.
Louis outlived most of his immediate legitimate family. His last surviving in-wedlock son, the Dauphin , died in Barely a year later, the Duke of Burgundy, the eldest of the Dauphin's three sons and then heir to Louis, followed his father.
Burgundy's elder son, Louis, Duke of Brittany , joined them a few weeks later. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis' heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou , Burgundy's younger son.
Accordingly, the king created a regency council as Louis XIII had in anticipation of Louis XIV's own minority, with some power vested in his illegitimate son Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine.
He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre, Count of Toulouse , of the rank of Prince of the Blood , which Louis had granted them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges.
Line of succession to the French throne upon the death of Louis XIV in Louis XIV's only surviving legitimate grandson, Philip V, was not included in the line of succession due to having renounced the French throne after the war of the Spanish succession, which lasted for 13 years after the death of Charles II of Spain in Further down the French line of succession in was the House of Conde , followed by the House of Conti a cadet branch of the House of Conde.
Both of these royal houses were descended in the male line from Henri II, Prince of Conde , a second cousin of French King Louis XIII the father of Louis XIV in the male line.
According to Philippe de Dangeau 's Journal , Louis on his deathbed advised his heir with these words:. Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity.
Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects. Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins.
Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis' deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments. Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne.
This, they contend, ended the threat of an aggressive Spain that historically interfered in domestic French politics.
These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.
Arguably, Louis also applied himself indirectly to "the alleviation of the burdens of [his] subjects. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil wars and aristocratic rebellions during his reign are seen by these historians as the result of Louis' consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites.
In their analysis, his early reforms centralised France and marked the birth of the modern French state. They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe.
Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. French became the universal language of the European elite. Louis' detractors have argued that his considerable foreign, military, and domestic expenditure impoverished and bankrupted France.
His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not. As supporting evidence, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary in Montesquieu 's Persian Letters.
Alternatively, Louis' critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the French Revolution to his failure to reform French institutions while the monarchy was still secure.
Other scholars counter that there was little reason to reform institutions that largely worked well under Louis.
They also maintain that events occurring almost 80 years after his death were not reasonably foreseeable to Louis, and that in any case, his successors had sufficient time to initiate reforms of their own.
Louis has often been criticised for his vanity. The memoirist Saint-Simon , who claimed that Louis slighted him, criticised him thus:. There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it.
For his part, Voltaire saw Louis' vanity as the cause for his bellicosity:. It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves.
Nonetheless, Louis has also received praise. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon described him not only as "a great king", but also as "the only King of France worthy of the name".
In , at Nuneham House , a piece of Louis' mummified heart, taken from his tomb and kept in a silver locket by Lord Harcourt , Archbishop of York , was shown to the Dean of Westminster , William Buckland , who ate it.
He did say, "Every time I appoint someone to a vacant position, I make a hundred unhappy and one ungrateful. On 5 April , Louis also founded the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis French : Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis , a military order of chivalry.
Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that if King Louis were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house.
Louis is a member of the House of Bourbon , a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians. Louis' patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.
It follows the Bourbon, Kings of France, and the Counts of Paris and Worms. It is one of the oldest in Europe. This is an incomplete list of Louis XIV's illegitimate children.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ludovic-Filip — Napoleon al III-lea — Wikimedia Commons. Ludovic al XIV-lea.
Ludovic al XIV-lea, de Rigaud , Casa de Bourbon. Ludovic al XIII-lea. Ludovic al XV-lea. Antoine de Bourbon, rege al Navarei.
Reflecting that belief, Louis XIV believed any disobedience to his edicts to be sinful, and he adopted the sun as his emblem since France revolved around him as the planets revolved around the sun.
By the s, however, the devoutly Catholic Louis XIV believed his faith should be the sole religion of his country. After years of persecuting Protestants and constricting their rights, the Catholic king revoked the Edict of Nantes in through his issuance of the Edict of Fontainebleau, which ordered the destruction of Protestant churches, the closure of Protestant schools, and the forced baptism and education of children into the Catholic faith.
The edict led , or more Huguenots to flee France in search of religious freedom elsewhere in Europe or in the American colonies. The Louisiana Territory became American property after the United States purchased it in , and the state of Louisiana joined the union in Henry VIII was crowned King of England in So why does the Tudor monarch still fascinate us?
He lived and ruled as a king should have. Louis XIV became the ideal king, and many have tried unsuccessfully to live up to his glory.
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